What is Operating System:
An operating system is an interface between the user and the computer hardware. It controls the execution of all the programs. It provides users an environment in which a user can execute programs conveniently and efficiently
Without a brain, we are not able to do anything at all. An operating system is the brain of a computer.
In technical terms, it is system software that manages hardware. An operating system controls the allocation of resources and services such as memory, processors, devices, and information.
Components of Computer System:
A computer system can be divided mainly into four components:
- Operating System
- Users as shown in figure
The user is the one who gives instructions to the computer system. They can be categorized as:
- Operational users
- End users.
Hardware: It includes physical parts such as CPU, motherboard, Monitor, etc.
Operating system: An os is a software program that enables the computer hardware to communicate and operate with the computer software. Without the computer os, a computer system and software programs would be useless.
Application programs: Spreadsheets, Word processors, compilers, web browsers, etc.
Types of operating system:
- Batch operating system: It is one of the oldest operating system. In the batch operating system, programs and data are collected together in a batch before processing starts.
- Multitasking operating system: Task means a process. A process means a program in execution. In a multatsking operating system a CPU performs multiple tasks at a time.
- Time-Sharing System: The main idea of timesharing systems is to allow a large number of users to interact with a single computer concurrently.
- Multiprocessor systems: Multiprocessing is the use of two or more central processing units within a single computer system. The term multiprocessing also refers to the ability of a system to support more than one processor or the ability to allocate tasks between them.
- Distributed Systems: A distributed system consists of a collection of autonomous computers, connected through a network and distributed middleware, which enables computers to coordinate their activities and to share the resources of the system so that users perceive the system as a single, integrated computing facility.
- Real-time systems: A real-time OS is defined as one that controls an environment by receiving data, processing them, and taking action or returning results very quickly to affect the functioning of the environment.
- Clustered Systems: A cluster is a collection of computers in which any member of the cluster is capable of supporting the processing functions of any other member.
- Mobile operating systems: A mobile OS is the one that controls smartphones, personal digital assistants, tablets, and information appliances.
Functions of an Operating System
- Processor Management
- Memory Management
- Device Management
- File Management
- Security : Preventing unauthorized access to programs and data
- Error Detecting
- Application that allows standered commnication between software and your computer.
- User Interface : This allows user to communicate with your computer.